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冯骥才:传统村落空心化这一时代挑战,我们要认真、积极应对
发表日期:2019年9月27日      来源:中国网      作者:李芳 丁滨

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                                                            天津大学冯骥才文学艺术研究院院长冯骥才先生

9月24日,为期2天的乡关何处·传统村落“空心化”问题及其对策国际学术研讨会在天津大学冯骥才文学艺术研究院召开。海内外专家学者以及来自传统村落基层的众多?;すぷ魅嗽?、志愿者、村民代表近百人,凭借对文化的自觉担当齐聚一堂,为面临“空心化”问题的传统村落研究实际、有效、可行的对策,为使传统村落得到真正的?;?、传承与发展贡献力量。

天津大学冯骥才文学艺术研究院院长冯骥才先生在开幕式致辞中表示,村落空心化是人类进程中正常的现象,它贯穿着一百多年来人类的历史。但中国有一点的特殊性,由于近三四十年中国社会以世所罕见的速度高速和全面的发展,村落的空心化来得极其突然、快速,没有准备。太突然的事物一定会带来冲突,带来挑战。所以一定要认真地应对,积极地应对。

以下为冯骥才先生致辞的全文:

积极地面对传统村落空心化的挑战

村落空心化是一个世界性的问题。西方社会自工业革命,乡村社会就开始瓦解。现代城市的崛起一定要大量吸引乡村的劳力与人口,村落的空心化便开始出现??梢运?,村落空心化是人类进程中正常的现象,它贯穿着一百多年来人类的历史。但中国有一点的特殊性,由于近三四十年中国社会以世所罕见的速度高速和全面的发展,村落的空心化来得极其突然、快速,没有准备。太突然的事物一定会带来冲突,带来挑战。所以一定要认真地应对,积极地应对。

村落空心化不是对不对、好不好的问题。村落空心化是一种历史现象,也是一种现实。你搬进新房子去住,怎么可能不离开旧房子?城镇化是社会进步的必然历程,但是不等于它没有问题。比如乡村耕种的土地荒芜了怎么办,还有一个,是今天会议要研究的——传统村落空心化了,村落遗产怎么办?传统村落的?;ぴ趺窗??

需要明确,我们今天的会议不是面对所有村落的空心化问题,而是针对传统村落的空心化。因为,传统村落是我们国家确定的必需?;さ呐└贝丛斓睦凡聘坏奈拿饕挪?,是我们民族的根性的家园。它的重要性与价值大家都非常清楚。

现在经国家住建部牵头、多部委参加并甄选的传统村落已超过6800个。

但是,其中一些传统村落正在空心化,有的很严重,接近消失。比如今天这里向大家展示的大汖村。它在2013年被确立为“中国传统村落”,2019年确立为“中国历史文化名村”,但现在村落只剩下13人,房屋百分之九十五已成空屋。这样的古村名村还能保存下去吗?怎么?;?、传承、发展?

可是如果它们消失了,我们将消失这一笔极为重要的农耕文明的遗存。我们不能坐视不理,听之任之。我们要积极面对。

对于学界来说,首先是要在深入的田野调查中,找到这些传统村落空心化的根由,研究和寻找实际、有效、可行的解决办法,制定科学?;ご胧┖吐涫捣桨?,提供给政府相关的管理部门。这是学界要承担的。

传统村落空心化的原因是多方面的。从八九十年代农民工进城的“打工潮”,到开发区就业潮、农村生活设施的落后、上学难、治病就医难、行路难、对城市生活的艳羡,还有在乡村找不到更好的劳动资源。从文化本身上说,一个不能回避的问题是原住民和乡村管理者缺乏文化上的自觉。

空心化是普遍的问题,传统村落必需做为另类加以解决。我们现在单一地把开发旅游当做传统村落的救命稻草,恐怕还不是从对传统村落的价值和?;さ囊庖逭飧鋈鲜兜脑愠龇⒌?。将传统村落改造为旅游景点不是我们的目的,也不是我们的初衷。

解决传统村落空心化问题是一个综合性复杂的工作,是一个难题。对此,政府做什么,专家做什么,地方和原住民做什么,怎么协作和怎么合力,应该认真想好和做好。

如果不积极面对,不科学地面对,一大批传统村落就会得而复失。

最近,习主席在河南调研时,十分明确地讲到如何建好传统村落。他不仅提出了方向,还讲到具体做法。比如:不要大拆大建,要注意保持地域风格,改善农民生活设施与良好的生活环境。面对着这一重要的指示,关键是怎么落实。如何理解这些讲话的科学内含,以及怎样做才是真正符合讲话的精神,使得传统村落真正获得?;び敕⒄?,使村落人民真正获得文化的尊严与生活的幸福,是我们的工作,是时代性的使命,也是这次会议的目的。


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